The Protective Role of Single Bulb Garlic Towards Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules-1 (VCAM-1) on Mice With High-Fat Diet

Isfatun Chasanah, Abdul Gofur, Sri Rahayu Lestari

Abstract


Atherosclerosis is initiated by inflammatory response characterized by the accumulation of lipids in the arteries, causing blockage of blood vessels. The excessive of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood is a major factor in endothelial dysfunction and results in an inflammatory process. The inflammatory process in atherosclerosis is due to the expression of adhesion molecules Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules-1 (VCAM-1). This research aims to evaluate the effect of single bulb garlic oil extract (SGBOE) against VCAM-1 expression high-fat diet mice. Male mice strain Balb/C were acclimatized for one week. Mice were divided into 6 groups (n=5): normal, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + simvastatin, and HFD + SBGOE 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW respectively. HFD was given for 45 days. Single garlic extract was given for four weeks orally. The aortic VCAM-1 expression was assayed using the Immunohistochemical-Flouresence (IHK-F) method. The result of One-Way ANOVA showed that the treatment influenced significantly (p<0.05). The foam cells increase in the high-fat diet group compared than normal mice. Dose 12,5 mg/kg BW reduces VCAM-1 expression near the normal group. Allicin and S-allyl cysteine (SAC) compounds in single bulb garlic are antioxidant compounds that act to prevent oxidative stress and prevention mechanisms against lipoprotein modification.

Keywords


atherosclerosis, single bulb garlic oil extract, VCAM-1

References


Al-Numair, K. S. (2009). Hypocholesteremic and Antioxidant Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(2), 161–166. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.161.166

Amal, A. F., & Sanaa, T. E.-S. (2012). Effect of Allium Sativum Extract on Serum Lipid and Antioxidant Status in hypercholesterolemic Rabbits. Life Sciences Journal, 9(3), 187–196.

Bentzon, J. F., Otsuka, F., Virmani, R., & Falk, E. (2014). Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture. Circulation Research, 114(12), 1852–1866. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302721

Chung, L. Y. (2006). The Antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: Allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl Disulfide. Journal of Medicinal Food, 9(2), 205–213. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2006.9.205

Colín-González, A. L., Santana, R. A., Silva-Islas, C. A., Chánez-Cárdenas, M. E., Santamaría, A., & Maldonado, P. D. (2012). The antioxidant mechanisms underlying the aged garlic extract- and S-allylcysteine-induced protection. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2012(1). https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/907162

Dahlöf, B. (2010). Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Epidemiology and Risk Assessment. American Journal of Cardiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.10.007

Dalal, I., Sengupta, M., Paul, S., & Mishra,  a. (2013). Comparative study of the effect of atorvastatin and garlic extract in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 2(4), 397. https://doi.org/10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130810

De Winther, M. P. J., Kanters, E., Kraal, G., & Hofker, M. H. (2005). Nuclear factor κB signaling in atherogenesis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 25(5), 904–914. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000160340.72641.87

Esenwa, C. C., & Elkind, M. S. (2016). Inflammatory risk factors, biomarkers and associated therapy in ischaemic stroke. Nature Reviews Neurology, 12(10), 594–604. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2016.125

Farmawati, A., Kusuma, R. J., Iswara, B. S., & Utami, K. D. (2016). Addition of conjugated linoleic acid in whole milk improves lipid profile in high fat diet induced hypercholesterolemia of rats. J. Med. Sci., 48(4), 185–192. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci004804201601

Gonen, A., Harats, D., Rabinkov, A., Miron, T., Mirelman, D., Wilchek, M., … Shaish, A. (2006). The antiatherogenic effect of allicin: Possible mode of action. Pathobiology, 72(6), 325–334. https://doi.org/10.1159/000091330

Gutowski, M., & Kowalczyk, S. (2013). A study of free radical chemistry: Their role and pathophysiological significance. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 60(1), 1–16.

Hansson, G. K., & Hermansson, A. (2011). The immune system in atherosclerosis. Nature Immunology, 12(3), 204–212. https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.2001

Jamkhande, P. G., Chandak, P. G., Dhawale, S. C., Barde, S. R., Tidke, P. S., & Sakhare, R. S. (2014). Therapeutic approaches to drug targets in atherosclerosis. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 22(3), 179–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2013.04.005

Kementerian Kesehatan RI, P. D. dan I. (2014). Situasi Kesehatan Jantung ; Mari Menuju Masa Muda Sehat, Hari Tua Nikmat Tanpa PTM dengan Perilaku Cerdik, 8.

Molina-Calle, M., de Medina, V. S., Priego-Capote, F., & de Castro, M. D. L. (2017). Establishing compositional differences between fresh and black garlic by a metabolomics approach based on LC–QTOF MS/MS analysis. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 62(May), 155–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.05.004

Mufida, Rahman, N., & Supriadi. (2018). Efek Ekstrak Daun Alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) Dalam Menurunkan Kadar Kolesterol Darah Pada Mencit (Mus musculus). J. Akademika Kim., 7(1), 11–18.

Murwani, S., Ali, M., & Muliartha, K. (2006). Atherogenic Diet Of White-Rat (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar) As Atherosclerotic Animal Model. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, 22(1), 6–9.

Nurliana, Rahman, N., & Ratman. (2018). Skrining Fitokimia Dan Uji Efektivitas Tepung Biji Kelor ( Moringa oleifera L..) Dalam Menurunkan Kadarkolesterol Total Darah Mencit Jantan. J. Akademika Kim, 7(3), 122–129.

Preiss, D. J., & Sattar, N. (2007). Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1: A viable therapeutic target for atherosclerosis? International Journal of Clinical Practice, 61(4), 697–701. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01330.x

Pujiastuti, I. N. E., Lestari, S. R., & Gofur, A. (2017). Gambaran Hematologi Mencit (Mus musculus) Model Toksisitas Subkronis. Scripta Biologica, 4(2), 75. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.sb.2017.4.2.371

Rader, D. J., & Daugherty, A. (2008). Translating molecular discoveries into new therapies for atherosclerosis. Nature, 451(7181), 904–913. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06796

Rahman. (2012). antioxydant proprietés of Garlic, 19(2), 589–591.

Ross, R. (1999). Atherosclerosis — An Inflammatory Disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 340(2), 115–126. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199901143400207

Singh, U., Kumar, S., & Dhakal, S. (2015). Future prospect of garlic usage in clinical practice of hyperlipidemia : A review. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 3(2), 38–43.

WHO. (2017). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Diakses pada November 7, 2018, from http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



p-ISSN: 2302-6030; e-ISSN: 2477-5185

CODEN: JAKUA7


Creative Commons License

Jurnal Akademika Kimia
by Universitas Tadulako is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at
http://jurnal.untad.ac.id/jurnal/index.php/jak

Indexed By

Crossref WorldCat PKP Index OneSearch BASE Scholar GARUDA Sinta Neliti Mendeley